Category | Nootropic Reviews

What is Centrophenoxine? – A Choline Source, Nootropic or What?

Many people including scientists are confused about the exact method of action of centrophenoxine. In several countries outside of the US it has been approved as a treatment for Alzheimer’s disease. As a nootropic supplement, it is essentially a more efficient and bioavailable form of dimethylaminoethanol (DMAE) and may have a whole other spectrum profile of cognitive effects.

Dimethylaminoethanol (DMAE) vs. Centrophenoxine

DMAE is a supplement occurring naturally in foods that is also produced naturally within the brain. It has been marketed for a large range of uses including: cognitive enhancement, anti-aging, anxiolytic and topical skin rejuvenation.

The structure of DMAE is closely related to choline which is the main precursor to the cognitive neurotransmitter, acetylcholine. There is a large debate as to whether or not DMAE acts as precursor to acetylcholine like its cousin, choline. The reason for this is because once DMAE crosses the blood brain barrier, it is thought for it to be impossible to convert into choline.

Close chemical structure of DMAE, choline and acetylcholine

Centrophenoxine was created from the DMAE structure to be a much more efficient and bioavailable version. Like with DMAE, there is still debate as to whether or not it actually works to increase acetylcholine. One thing for certain is that there have been many studies to show the effectiveness of centrophenoxine at increasing cognitive performance however ost of these studies have been targeted towards older and diseased (Alzheimer’s) patients.

Overall when comparing the benefits of DMAE and centrophenoxine, the latter will win both in terms of cognitive benefits, as well as bioavailability. If you are already supplementing DMAE as a nootropic, centrophenoxine may offer advanced benefits to your nootropic stack.

Centrophenoxine Benefits

Most of the studies pertaining to centrophenoxine have taken place in aging mammalian brains but it may also have benefits to the young or in those without neurological dysfunction. It is widely considered to be a powerful antioxidant, which may boost the overall goals of many nootropic users. After all, many nootropic users’ goals is not just to temporarily increase brain function, but to also reduce brain aging and increase overall cognitive health in the long run.

Many of the studies involving centrophenoxine have involved aging or diseased mammal brains. A large amount of the studies have shown the nootropic to reduce or slow down the progress of aging and decrease damages to the cholinergic system. Other studies have also shown both centrophenoxine and DMAE to be beneficial in those with certain brain injuries/trauma.

Although the method of action may not be entirely clear, it may be possible that centrophenoxine increases acetylcholine and/or cholinergic activity through alternate methods. One study did show that the nootropic increased choline levels in rat brains. Increasing the rate of choline or acetylcholine synthesis by increasing or freeing up phospholipids may be entirely possible. One thing for certain is that centrophenoxine may have benefits as an antioxidant and supporting nootropic in both young and old users.

Centrophenoxine Stacking – Can (Should) It Be Used With Choline?

The main question many people have is whether or not centrophenoxine should be used with choline or an acetylcholine supplement like alpha GPC or citicoline. Centrophenoxine and DMAE may be related to choline but the two substances are NOT the same. Centrophenoxine can be stacked with choline and should not replace a normal choline or acetylcholine supplement regimen.

Centrophenoxine or DMAE may even help to increase choline and acetylcholine synthesis in some way. This of course has not been proven in humans however in rat brains centrophenoxine increased the overall amount of choline. Adding this nootropic may improve the efficacy of an already established choline or acetylcholine supplement stack.

Several choline-related supplements such as acetyl L-carnitine may compliment acetylcholine synthesis. ALCAR and choline is thought to be a great combination. The ALCAR acts not as a precursor to choline itself, but as a synthesis aid to acetylcholine (helps choline convert into acetylcholine). Centrophenoxine may have benefits similar to ALCAR when used in conjunction with a choline or a choline related supplement.

So centrophenoxine may be used in a nootropic stack with choline or acetylcholine supplements. Like ALCAR, it is not considered to be a choline supplement itself however it may have cholinergic effects. There are also other things to consider in your stack. Centrophenoxine has anti-oxidant effects and adding it to your already robust stack may not be a bad idea for alternative health benefits.
Conclusion

Centrophenoxine is a great nootropic and anti-oxidant that is widely misunderstood. It has actually grown in popularity as a nootropic over the years and may people are using it as a more advanced form of DMAE. Its’ potent anti-oxidant activity make it an attractive supplement to add into a stack.

Centrophenoxine may be used in a cholinergic stack and is not meant to replace a choline source. This is not to say it may not increase cholinergic-related side effects by any means. Having this supplement added to your regimen may help to add benefits and its popularity has steadily been increasing over the years.

Pyritinol Review – A Highly Under-Rated Smart Drug

pyritinol review chart

Pyritinol is one of the less mentioned nootropics. This semi-natural vitamin nootropic has been used in Europe for decades to treat a variety of conditions including Alzheimer’s. Even though it is not yet popular as a nootropic, it can add some depth and value to an already successful nootropic stack. Some people even consider pyritinol to be highly under-rated and one of their most favorite nootropics.

There are multiple mechanisms of pyritinol. It helps to improve glucose metabolism and blood flow in certain parts of the brain. These benefits may help it to prevent or reduce nerve damages in certain instances of hypoxia or loss of blood flow. It may also help protect the brain under circumstances of disturbed glucose metabolism which may contribute benefits to Alzheimer’s sufferers as well as people suffering from alcohol withdrawal.

Pyritinol is not currently registered as a drug within the United States but is used within Europe under the trade name, Encephabol. In countries where it is prescribed (mostly in Europe), it may be used for a host of conditions including: Alzheimer’s, senile dementia, brain development disorders, alcohol withdrawal and brain injury.

Pyritinol

As a Nootropic

It is accepted that pyritinol improves cholinergic neurotransmission. Exactly how this is done is not fully understood. One study showed that high affinity choline uptake was improved in rat brains. This is the same primary nootropic mechanism observed with both pramiracetam and coluracetam.

There may be multiple nootropic mechanisms as a result of pyritinol use. Another study showed that several weeks of pyritinol use in rats showed an increase in acetylcholine release in certain parts of the brain. The nootropic does not act as a precursor to acetylcholine and thus it may be that the metabolites of the substance influence the release of acetylcholine but this is not fully understood.

What to Expect?

Some sources have stated pyritinol as a central nervous system stimulant. This is entirely incorrect as it does not work to stimulate the central nervous system. Pyritinol is a cholinergic nootropic that may help to speed up cognitive processing.

Most of the nootropic benefits reported are similar to pramiracetam and others in the racetam class. You may experience enhanced learning and memory and focus. What areas you experience the most benefit in will depend largely on personal experience. Some state that pyritinol primarily speeds up logical processes and learning however you may experience a whole spectrum of improvements in cognitive functioning. This may include: improved learning, memory, focus and logical processing.

Is it Safe?

Pyrintol has had decades of safe use in humans but there are some things to take note of. When used in the right ways and within recommended dosages, this supplement can be considered to be fairly safe to use. People with Rheumatoid arthritis should not use pyritinol as this is contraindicated by the Encephabol manufacturer. Pregnant or breastfeeding woman should also not use.

The nootropic may have some common minor side effects. This may include: headaches, skin irritation, insomnia and emotional irritability to name a few. If you experience any of these side effects stop use and consult a doctors’ advice.

There have been reported some extremely rare serious side effects of pyritinol. One case of pancreatitis was reported but this was ruled to be an extremely rare auto-immune based response. Several cases of hepatotoxicity have also been reported as a result of certain genetic predisposition. It is important to note that these cases are extremely rare as hundreds of thousands of people have used pyritinol without serious side effects. Also note that one popular nootropic retailer was selling another product other than pyritinol. Our pyritinol is 100% genuine.

A Primer on Sulbutiamine

Sulbutiamine is in a class of supplements known as nootropics. Nootropics are known as “smart drugs” because of their cognitive enhancing abilities. Sulbutiamine comes from thiamine, also known as vitamin B1. Because it can cross the blood-brain barrier much easier than thiamine, it is used in a variety of ways.

Once it crosses the blood-brain barrier, the body metabolizes it as thiamine, which the brain then uses to produce the neurotransmitters Acetylcholine (ACh) and GABA.

In addition, it helps facilitate glutamatergic transmissions. Glutamate is the most common neurotransmitter in the central nervous system for excitement. Because of this, it plays a critical role in learning and memory function.

Because sulbutiamine also helps reduce the amount of dopamine released in the prefrontal cortex of the brain, the density of D1 dopamine receptors increases to help boost your overall mood.

sulbutiamine

Features/ Medical Uses

Initially developed as a treatment for Beriberi, a condition known to cause severe fatigue and lethargy, there are now many medical uses where sulbutiamine could be an effective treatment.

Studies show it is an effective treatment for psychogenic erectile dysfunction. This means men who experience erectile dysfunction because of psychological issues such as depression, anxiety, or stress can get relief. While this may not sound like a big deal, compared to drugs prescribed to treat this condition, sulbutiamine is not only cheaper, but a much safer option.

Sulbutiamine is also commonly prescribed to treat a condition known as asthenia. This disease causes chronic fatigue, but is cerebral in nature.

Due to its memory enhancing abilities, sulbutiamine is also useful in helping patients who suffer from Alzheimer’s disease and schizophrenia.

Benefits

Sulbutiamine has a number of benefits, including:

  • Improved memory
  • Increased energy levels
  • Improved focus
  • Improved overall mood

Common Side Effects

No supplement, even safe ones, is free from side effects. Even though this nootropic is highly regarded as safe, and is definitely much safer than stimulant supplements on the market, taking more than the recommended dose could lead to side effects.

At the standard therapeutic dose of 850 mg per day, only mild skin allergies have been reported.

One patient suffering from a lack of energy due to his bipolar disorder, found the supplement so helpful, he ceased using all other medication, and doubled the does of sulbutiamine. This resulted in more severe bipolar disorder symptoms, but no serious health issues have been reported as a result

How to Take Sulbutiamine

This is a nootropic you do not need to take every day. Though it is not really dangerous to take it every day, you can quickly build a tolerance and it could lose its effectiveness within a few fays of regular use. It is best to use this supplement sparingly, to keep the stimulating effect working for you. This nootropic is a much safer alternative to the stimulant supplements on the market today, though you will only see subtle effects.

Sulbutiamine is available in both bulk powder and capsule form. The bulk form is cheaper to buy, but the taste is incredibly foul. If you stick to the powder form, dissolve it in a drink, or buy your own capping machine and produce the capsules yourself. Even with the expense of a capping machine, bulk powder will save you more in the long run.

Dosage Recommendations

The standard recommended dose of sulbutiamine for therapeutic purposes is 850 mg per day, for a person who weighs 150 pounds. If you weigh more, you make need to adjust upward, and if you weigh less, you may need to adjust downward.

Some say you should not exceed 600 mg per day, but even at the 850 mg per day dose, only mild skin reactions have been reported.  To be safe, unless you are using it to treat a specific condition, do not exceed 600 mg per day.

It is best to take this dose once per day, rather than breaking it up into small doses throughout the day. You should feel the effects within an hour after you take it, and the effects will last about five hours before you start to feel the effects diminish.

This supplement is an excellent choice for when you need an extra mental boost—such as when you are studying for a test, or will be giving a presentation and wants to make sure you are sharp. Though not as effective as amphetamine based alternatives, it is much safer and much less likely to cause insomnia.

This information does not come from a medical doctor. It is for educational purposes only, and should not be considered medical advice. Always talk to a doctor before starting this or any other supplement.

Phenylpiracetam Review

phenylpiracetam review chart

Phenylpiracetam is one of newer and more potent nootropic racetams. It was created by adding a phenyl group to the popular and well-studied nootropic, piracetam.

Perhaps, some of the biggest media attention phenylpiracetam has had was during the Olympics. A woman in the 2006 winter Olympics tested positive for phenylpiracetam and was stripped of her medal. The reason phenylpiracetam was banned was because of its positive effects on cognitive and physical performance.

Is Phenylpiracetam a Stimulant?

Many people wonder if phenylpiracetam is a stimulant. The answer is, yes and no. It is a stimulant in the fact that it can increase focus and alertness however, it does not primarily influence neurotransmitters that typically relate to CNS stimulants (amphetamines, eurogenics, xanthines.) Phenylpiracetam does affect noradrenaline (norepinephrine) and dopamine levels but not to the extent of other stimulants.

Typically, CNS stimulants will cause some degree of jitteriness, anxiety and irritability. This less likely with phenylpiracetam (it still can happen). Phenylpiracetam can cause alertness and heightened cognitive ability with less risk than traditional CNS stimulants. Along with oxiracetam, it is probably one the most `stimulating` compounds out of the racetam family and a great choice if you desire increased alertness.

Phenylpiracetam vs. Piracetam

Both phenylpiracetam and piracetam have similar chemical structures (a 2-oxo-pyrrolidone base). Phenylpiracetam and piracetam both have near 100% oral bioavailability and similar half-lives. So what makes phenylpiracetam so much better than piracetam?

Phenylpiracetam is deemed around 60 times more potent than piracetam. This is irrelevant because the recommended dosages of both are different. Taking higher amounts of piracetam will not yield the same results as phenylpiracetam.

Adding a phenyl group to piracetam allows phenylpiracetam to have a much larger range of pharmacological effects. It is much better than piracetam at increasing focus and reaction times.

Phenylpiracetam vs. Noopept

Comparing phenylpiracetam to noopept is like comparing apples to oranges. Both have their pros and cons. Which is better really comes down to your own chemistry and most importantly, your results.

Some might naturally think that noopept is stronger because it is roughly, 1000 times stronger than piracetam. This relates to potency and not actual effects. The dosages of noopept and phenylpiracetam are much different so potency should not be factor in comparing positive results.

In regards to tolerance, noopept and phenylpiracetam both have a degree of tolerance that builds up. There aren’t really many studies comparing noopept to phenylpiracetam so it is hard to make a subjective conclusion and which is better in terms of tolerability. Generally, phenylpiracetam is seen to have much higher tolerance build-up than noopept.

Phenylpiracetam vs. Pramiracetam

This is where the real comparison begins. You have the perpetrated, “study nootropic”, vs. the “extreme focus agent”. Both have a lot of hype behind them and both are fairly expensive. It is possible you could be let down by either depending on your own personal experience and biochemistry.

Phenylpiracetam seems to have a large degree of discrepancy between experience reports. Some feel it is very powerful, whereas, others see it as a useless nootropic that leaves them tired and full of “mind fog”.

Phenylpiracetam seems to have an issue with tolerability. Some say tolerance builds up very fast and sometimes as quick as 2-3 days. From reports, it seems to be unpredictable. We strongly think that some suppliers are selling bunk phenylpiracetam and this may be the reason for the large variety of conflicting reports.

Pramiracetam seems to have much more consistent results. It has been around longer and has earned its keep in the nootropic community. Once again, phenylpiracetam may have gotten a bad name in popular nootropic communities due to supplier issues. Now that phenylpiracetam is becoming more popular, more nootropic retailers are selling it and the demand for it has made more reputable nootropic manufactures creating the compound (hence improving quality).

Try both phenylpiracetam and pramiracetam. You may choose one over the other, or maybe use both. Find a good stack to compliment both to get optimal results. These are both advanced nootropics and one should have good knowledge about acetylcholine and choline as well as how racetams and ampakines work. Feel free to visit our store or blog to get more information about nootropics.

Alpha GPC Review

This Alpha GPC review will cover the benefits of alpha GPC. Alpha GPC is an excellent acetylcholine source. It has been clinically studied to improve cognitive performance and help aid in the reduction of Alzheimer’s symptoms (not cure). This alpha GPC review will hopefully clear up some common questions about alpha GPC and help to inform on what it can do in a nootropic stack.

Alpha GPC Purity – All the Difference

L-Alpha glycerylphosphorylcholine is a highly purified form of soy lecithin. Alpha GPC is expensive to make through this process. Some suppliers will sell partially purified alpha GPC that has only been purified once (nicknamed 50% alpha GPC). The best alpha GPC will be purified twice and upwards of 99% purity. This second purification doubles the price but also makes it much more effective. Most suppliers will let you know how many times their alpha GPC has been purified if you ask but may not advertise it. At Peak Nootropics, our alpha GPC has been purified twice and will be at no less than 99% purity.

Alpha GPC vs. Choline

You have likely looked at other types of choline as possible substitutes to alpha GPC or vise-versa. Many people will look at cheaper alternatives to Alpha GPC due to its high price tag. Choline Bitartrate is a precursor to acetylcholine and so is alpha GPC, so which is better? Choline bitartrate is pure choline in a salt form that can be absorbed in the intestines with limited problems. Alpha GPC is also a precursor to choline that goes through several changes in the intestines and while crossing the blood-brain-barrier.

In the end, alpha GPC is much better at converting into acetylcholine than choline bitartrate. Higher acetylcholine levels are the desired effects of taking a “choline” supplement and alpha GPC hits this on the head. Alpha GPC will usually get better results will fewer side effects.

Alpha GPC Stacking

Alpha GPC can be used alone as a nootropic however, its effectiveness can be multiplied when combining it in a good stack. When Alpha GPC is used alone, it may offer some subtle cognitive benefits that may or may not be noticed by the user. Alpha GPC and CDP Choline can be considered actual nootropics because they can provide cognitive benefits when taken alone.

The best cognitive benefits will arise when Alpha GPC is combined with a racetam or cholinergic supplement. Alpha GPC will combine with all of the racetams quite nicely. Perhaps the most popular stack is the alpha GPC/pramiracetam stack. That stack is very powerful and used commonly but is not necessarily better than any other.

Alpha GPC will combine with other nootropics as well. It will help potentiate the effects of noopept which is not a racetam. Noopept also has effects on the acetylcholine system and is considered cholinergic. With this said, alpha GPC generally acts synergistically with supplements and drugs that affect the cholinergic system. Other systems that affect the catecholamine system like, Modafinil will not benefit as much with the addition an acetylcholine supplement.

Alpha GPC Benefits

Alpha GPC will usually provide all your most favorable nootropic benefits. Like stated previously, it should be used primarily in a stack and not alone to yield the most favorable results. This review bases alpha GPC benefits upon a stack and not when used alone. When used in a stack, it can make a racetam or cholinergic stimulator much more effective. Its main benefits will correspond with overall better cognition such as, memory, learning, concentration, perception and coordination. Alpha GPC is great supplement and one of the best for promoting Acetylcholine synthesis.