Directions: Pyritinol is water soluble. This product is sold as a chemical and any usage is a decision based on your own research. Do not exceed recommended dosage. Do not ingest if you are pregnant/breastfeeding. Extremely rare cases of cholestatic hepatitis are believed to be caused by a reaction to pyritinol. Extremely rare side effects may include allergic reactions. Consult a doctor prior to using. By acquiring our products, you agree to our terms & conditions.
Pyritinol, under the chemical name, 5,5′-[dithiobis(methylene)]bis[4-(hydroxymethyl)-2-methylpyridin-3-ol] is a semi-natural nootropic created from the pyridoxine (vitamin B6) structure. It was developed in the early 1960’s and is still prescribed for a range of neurological conditions in many countries under several different trade names. In the United States, and many other countries it is available over the counter as a general cognitive enhancer.
The effectiveness of pyritinol has been tested over several decades. Over this time it has proven to be effective and safe as a general nootropic in many people. There are several safety concerns that have been largely overinflated by the media. Although the substance has been shown to be effective, the mechanisms of pyritinol are still disputed and the nootropic benefits may be a result of several different methods.
Mechanism(s) of Action
A highly suggested method of action of pyritinol is an alleged effect on choline uptake. One study showed that rat brains saw an increase in high affinity choline uptake when administered pyritinol in tiered dosages. This particular study involved both old and young rat brains with the former showing the most benefit. The effect of possible pyritinol choline uptake has not been studied in humans.
Another well published study on rat brains showed that administration of pyritinol for 2-3 weeks improved acetylcholine levels. An increase of acetylcholine was observed in the cortex and striatum but not within the hippocampus. Another study, suggested that the acetylcholine release may be a result of the metabolites of pyritinol. It is suggested that these metabolites somehow increase acetylcholine without acting as a direct precursor to the neurotransmitter.
The benefits of pyritinol have been proven over the years in all types of people including the old and young. By far, the most positive benefits can be seen in older people due to the declination of cholinergic activity that comes with age. Even though older people are more likely to see the most benefit out of this nootropic does not mean that it will not provide positive effects in the young as well.
Primary benefits of pyritinol may be seen to be on par with cholinergic improvements. This may include one or more of the following:
- Improved memory
- Increased learning
- Improved problem-solving skills
- Enhanced sensory perception
Whether or not one will experience benefits from pyritinol will depend largely on individual circumstances. Studies in rats showed improved benefits with increased dosages. One should always follow recommended dosages with this nootropic as there are safety concerns which may create an increased risk at higher dosages.
Safety & Side Effects
Regardless of what you read, pyritinol has been shown to have a great safety record. It has been used over many decades by hundreds of thousands of people and shown to have a decent safety history. With this said, the compound can still cause safety issues like anything put into the human body. It is always recommended to speak with a qualified medical professional before using pyritinol.
There are some extremely rare cases of semi-serious complications thought to be caused by pyritinol. One 23 year old appeared to develop inflammation of the pancreas (pancreatitis) after exposure to the substance. This was ruled to be an extremely rare immune-based response caused by the individual.
There have also been several extremely rare cases of hepatotoxicity relating to cholestasis which is believed to be caused by the nootropic. The effect of cholestasis caused by the substance seems to appear in an extremely small group of people relating to rare specific genetic predispositions. Users developing symptoms of hepatotoxicity are advised to discontinue use and consult a doctor immediately.
Pyritinol has some more common side effects. Headache is a common side effect which many be linked to cholinergic mechanisms. Aside from this, nausea, gastrointestinal discomfort and insomnia are all fairly common depending on dosage and sensitivity of the individual. Other more rare side effects include several skin problems such as dermatitis.
Pyritinol is rarely used on its own and commonly stacked with other nootropics. It may work synergistically with other cholinergic compounds like racetams and acetylcholine or choline supplements. For this reason, it is often combined with other cholinergic nootropics however these combinations may increase the chance of side effects and it is advised to move with caution. Sulbutiamine and pyritinol are said to be synergetic however here is no direct evidence of these working to potentiate each other.
Since pyritinol is a potent cholinergic, acetylcholinesterase inhibitors may compliment it quite well. Galantamine and more commonly, huperzine A may be combined with the nootropic to create synergistic qualities. Adding racetams in this stack may further improve the stack or cause side effects depending on the individual’s physiology. It is always recommended to start with the substance alone first before building a stack.