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Sulbutiamine is a synthetic version of thiamine (Vitamin B-1). Also known as Arcalion, Enerion, Bisibuthiamine, and Youvitan, sulbutiamine was initially developed in Japan to offset the effects of chronic thiamine deficiency which is more common in Japan than in the West.

The B Vitamins are vital to a healthy nervous system and lack of thiamine in your diet can manifest as

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Phenylpiracetam is a Russian nootropic developed in the early 1980’s. In Russia it is known as Carphedon or Phenotropil and is administered as a prescription drug. Initially it was designed to be a nootropic that would also improve physical stamina. Phenylpiracetam is structurally identical to. Piracetam save for a phenyl group added by adding a phenyl group to the

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Mucuna pruriens is the Velvet bean. Also known as cowage or cow-itch due to the fact that it’s spines can cause irritation to a cows mouth. Due to the high amount of serotonin and dopamine precursors, the cows generally just keep on chewing. Velvet bean has some studies backing it up as an effective adjunct against Parkinson’s disease and for

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Tongkat Ali, also known colloquially as “Longjack” is also known by its botanical name Eurycoma Longifolia. It has also earned the title of “Malaysian ginseng.” Like Rhodiola and other “false ginsengs” it is not actually a ginseng plant but is called such because it shares many of the same adaptogenic and nootropic properties as Panax ginseng. Tongkat Ali has been

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Rhodiola Rosea is considered a natural nootropic. It is also classed as an adaptogen. Adaptogens can help the body and brain deal with environmental and internal stressors as well as working to tone the adrenal system which can result in lessened fatigue, improved  mood, less anxiety and more jitter-free energy. Anecdotally there is a wealth of evidence that Rhodiola is

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You are what you eat, is a very old saying, but in the case of the brain what it is made of and the quality of what you eat are very closely tied. The brain is the body’s control center and as such is one of the most energy demanding of all organs and systems. The gray matter in the

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The brain is the central processing unit for the entire body as well as the seat of consciousness. As such, it is an incredibly sophisticated organ that manages to translate electrical impulses and chemical reactions into the vast array of human experience, behavior and cognition. The brain contains literally billions of neurons, or “brain cells.” Neurons communicate with each other

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The process of turning food into energy is vital to survival. Metabolism, therefore, is one of the most basic and important functions. The brain, by the way, is the central processing unit for the entire body. As a result, it is one of the most energy demanding of all physical systems.

During the process of extracting energy via ATP through metabolism

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Uridine is classified as a pseudovitamin and nootropic that stacks well with choline or fish oil, (especially DHA) for improved cognition. Uridine is also used as a substrate from which cytidine is synthesized. Cytidine is related to cytidisine phosphocoline (citicoline or CDP choline).

Supplementation of uridine seems to be in the 500-1,000mg range, with the lone human study using the higher

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Probably the most well-known type of nootropics are the cholinergic supplements, especially the racetam family. Cholinergics aren’t the only class of mechanism of action for nootropics by a long shot. Most always, nootropics affect the functioning of one or more neurotransmitter systems or specific subreceptors. AMPAkines are in some cases some of the most potent of all the different > View article